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    Great Wall

    The Great Wall, one of the greatest wonders of the world, was listed as a World Heritage by UNESCO in 1987. Just like a gigantic dragon, it winds up and down across deserts, grasslands, mountains and plateaus, stretching approximately 21,196 kilometers( 13,170 miles) from east to west of China.

    The construction of the wall be- gan during the Spring and Autumn period(770-476 BC)andV}Jarring States period(475-22l BC).Ducal states at that time built walls to defend their ownterritories. After the First Em- peror of the Qin Dynasty crushed all ri- val states, he foundedthe first central- ized and unified dynasty in Chinese history. To consolidate the country andward off invasion by ethnic minority tribes in the north, he had the walls linked andextended,giving rise to the 5 000-kilometer- long Qin Great Wall. Later dynasties fromHan(206 BC-220 AD)to Ming( 1368-1644)kept building and improving the wall, extending itmore than 1 000 kilome- ters to today's scale. The wall stretches across the vast area of northand central China reputed as“Enlivened for 2 000 years and Maneuvering for 100 000 Ii"

    Great Wall of Han Dynasty was about 10000 km long, and it is the longest of all in history.Today, we can easily find its remains along a rough line from Xinjiang Autonomous Region toHebei Province. Silk Road went on along the wall for half of its length president of Former UnitedStates great Richard Nixon remarked on his visiting“This is the Great Wall and only a peoplewith a great past could have a with such a great wall will surely have a great great wall and sucha great people future"



     Ming Tombs

    The Ming Tombs are located in the northwestern suburbs of Beijing ,about fifty kilometers from the city. They are the tombs of thirteen emperors of the Ming Dynasty (1368----1644 AD).

    Dingling is the tomb of the tenth emperor of the Ming Dynasty and his two empresses. Its underground palace was the first of the underground structures excavated between 1956 and 1957.

    Dingling consists of five chambers, all built of stone. Its total area is 1,195 square metres. The Ante-chamber and the Central Chamber are 7.2 metres high each. Two Side Chambers are 7.1 meters high each. In the Central Chamber there are three thrones,. The Back Chamber, 9.5 metres high, is the place where the coffins are kept.

    The grave goods of Dingling number over 3,000 pieces in all, including gold, silver, pearls, jewels, jadeware, chinaware, lacquerware, silk goods.



      China Ordnance Society



      Feng Changgen

    Beijing Institute of Technology,

    China Association for Science and Technology



                     Clive Russell Woodley


                International Ballistics Society


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